Last change: Nov. 11, 2020


Suggestions for Studies on

More references are listed here; some can be downloaded. Access: ID = 'kmdd kurs' (with empty space!); password = 'kohlberg'.

You whould alwas report (average) C-scores, not only categories (Lind 2019), and always report measures of absolute effect size, not only statistical significance! (Lind 2016)

You are welcome to send me your research questions and studies in an early phase of planning: georg.lind [ät]

Recent publications on moral competenc:

Lind, G. (2019). How to teach morality. Berlin: Logos.

Lind, G., Hartmann, H. A. & Wakenhut, R., eds. (2010).

Hemmerling, Kay (2014).

Nowak, E. (2013).

Nowak, E., Schrader, D. & Zizek, B., eds. (2013).

We need empirical and, more yet, experimental studies on the nature, relevance, development and fostering of moral competence. We need also replications studies, which use the same or a similar design as existing studies:

On the relevance of moral competence for social behavior: Are people with high moral competence* ...

* (a) Always anticipate competing explanations for the effects of moral competence, and try to choose a research design (sampling) which allows you to decide which actually caused the effect (see also Lind 2019a).

(b) Test my overall-hypothesis that a C-score of > 20.0 is a threshold for autonomously guided behavior (Lind 2019b): People with a higher moral competence behave considerably better even without external control. The analogous threshold on Kohlberg's Stage scale would be the transition from Stage 2 to Stage 3.
Explanation: Some studies indicate that this hypothesis is valid and that we could reduce much violence, deceit and other misbehaviors (and their enormous costs) by offering people more opportunities for improving their moral competence. I also believe that we could have a true democracy, when our schools would provide 90 percent of the citizens with the opportunity to develop their moral competence to this level and beyond.


On the nature of moral competence and moral orientations:


On the development of moral competence**


On the efficacy of methods for fostering moral competence**

**Always anticipate competing explanations for the causes of an increase, stagnation or regression of moral competence, and try to collect data from different institutions of education which allow you to decide what is actually causing the effect. For this purpose you may also use appropriate data produced by other studies! Advise: Be careful when generalizing your findings, but do not be too humble if your findings need attention (see also Lind 2002; Lind 2019a).